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However, the structure of the football pyramid below the top league has been much more volatile. At the end of each season, the top two teams from each Regionalliga were placed into two groups and the winner of playoffs within each group was promoted.
It was quite a complex system but there was only one national league, below that the leagues were more regional. Underneath these two second divisions were fifteen Amateurliga nine in the south, four in the north, of which one was in West Berlin which made promotion and relegation even more complex.
Because of the politics of football among the regions of Germany, some Amateurliga champions were guaranteed promotion while others had to playoff against one another.
Bundesliga divisions were combined into one, creating a second tier national league. Additionally, the reunification of Germany in added an extra layer of complexity.
Consequently, in there were play offs involving 13 teams in four groups with the group winner gaining promotion. Involved in these play offs were the ten Oberliga champions two had been added from the east , the runners-up from the Oberliga Nord and two of the relegation teams from the 2.
Bundesliga and the Oberliga. You would think that this might make relegation and promotion of four teams into the 2. Bundesliga simpler it did, sort of , but you would be wrong if you thought it was just the champions of each Regionalliga moving up, politics between the regions in German football is much more complex than that.
The winners of Nord and Nordost then met in a play off for the third promotion position. However, it was the fourth promotion spot that was the most problematic.
Since , there had been direct promotion and relegation for three teams between the 2. Bundesliga and the Bundesliga; however, currently across all three national leagues the team finishing third from bottom in the higher league would meet in a playoff against the team finishing third in the lower league.
Now that the Regionalliga had dropped to the fourth tier of German football, a third the Regionalliga West was added.
Having a third Regionalliga allowed the pattern of three team promotion and relegation that operated above them, although there would be no playoff involving the third team.
It seemed that a nice simple system had finally emerged. However, in October the Regionalligas were, once again, reorganized because of the large number of insolvencies that had taken place across German football during the previous season.
The travel demands combined with lower media interest from any except local outlets, made it hard for teams to stay viable.
One last change, however, occurred. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the third-tier national association football league in Germany.
For other uses, see 3. For more details on this topic, see History of German football. FC Magdeburg 17, —18  2,, 6, 1.
Promotion to the 2. Promotion to the 3. Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original pdf on 2 November Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 6 April Die torreichsten Spiele" in German.
Retrieved 21 June Liga" [TSV Munich does not receive approval for the 3. Retrieved 28 May Below the level of the 3.
Liga, leagues are generally subdivided on a regional basis. Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen upper leagues which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas.
The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country.
In the early s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany. Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues.
To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations. Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2.
Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.
Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May , when the club was relegated for the first time.
In the —09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, which had been in use from until From until , a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2.
From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January.
In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays five games beginning at 3: A new television deal in reintroduced a Friday game beginning at 8: Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship. At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Dynamo Dresden and F.
Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers. The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga.
Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss.
Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss. The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion.
Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League , while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round see overview.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2.
The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2. Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match.
The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2. If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy , with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team.
This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
In the first decade of the third millennium s , the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title.
At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 percent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current Regionalliga Nordost member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties.