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After the Western Roman Empire fell in , and Germanic kingdoms took its place, the Germanic people adopted Latin as a language more suitable for legal and other, more formal uses.

It is attested both in inscriptions and in some of the earliest extant Latin literary works, such as the comedies of Plautus and Terence.

The Latin alphabet was devised from the Etruscan alphabet. The writing later changed from what was initially either a right-to-left or a boustrophedon [8] [9] script to what ultimately became a strictly left-to-right script.

During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature , which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools.

Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of Plautus , which contain snippets of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin termed sermo vulgi , "the speech of the masses", by Cicero , existed concurrently with literate Classical Latin.

The informal language was rarely written, so philologists have been left with only individual words and phrases cited by classical authors and those found as graffiti.

As it was free to develop on its own, there is no reason to suppose that the speech was uniform either diachronically or geographically.

On the contrary, romanised European populations developed their own dialects of the language, which eventually led to the differentiation of Romance languages.

It was more in line with everyday speech, not only because of a decline in education but also because of a desire to spread the word to the masses.

Despite dialectal variation, which is found in any widespread language, the languages of Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy retained a remarkable unity in phonological forms and developments, bolstered by the stabilising influence of their common Christian Roman Catholic culture.

It was not until the Moorish conquest of Spain in cut off communications between the major Romance regions that the languages began to diverge seriously.

One key marker of whether a given Romance feature was found in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its parallel in Classical Latin.

If it was not preferred in Classical Latin, then it most likely came from the undocumented contemporaneous Vulgar Latin.

For example, the Romance for "horse" Italian cavallo , French cheval , Spanish caballo , Portuguese cavalo and Romanian cal came from Latin caballus.

However, Classical Latin used equus. Therefore, caballus was most likely the spoken form. Vulgar Latin began to diverge into distinct languages by the 9th century at the latest, when the earliest extant Romance writings begin to appear.

They were, throughout the period, confined to everyday speech, as Medieval Latin was used for writing. Medieval Latin is the written Latin in use during that portion of the postclassical period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed.

The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its natural spoken base.

Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never spoken Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful for international communication between the member states of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies.

Without the institutions of the Roman empire that had supported its uniformity, medieval Latin lost its linguistic cohesion: Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead.

Identifiable individual styles of classically incorrect Latin prevail. The Renaissance briefly reinforced the position of Latin as a spoken language by its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists.

Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature.

They strove to preserve what they could and restore Latin to what it had been and introduced the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained by comparing surviving manuscripts.

By no later than the 15th century they had replaced Medieval Latin with versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, by scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been.

Therefore, until the end of the 17th century the majority of books and almost all diplomatic documents were written in Latin. Afterwards, most diplomatic documents were written in French and later just native or other languages.

The largest organisation that retains Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the Catholic Church. Although the Mass of Paul VI is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language , it can be and often is said in Latin, in part or in whole, especially at multilingual gatherings.

It is the official language of the Holy See , the primary language of its public journal , the Acta Apostolicae Sedis , and the working language of the Roman Rota.

In the Anglican Church , after the publication of the Book of Common Prayer of , a Latin edition was published in for use in universities.

Because Canada is officially bilingual, the Canadian medal has replaced the English inscription with the Latin Pro Valore.

Several states of the United States have Latin mottos: Veritas was the goddess of truth, a daughter of Saturn, and the mother of Virtue.

Hampden-Sydney College has Huc venite iuvenes ut exeatis viri "Come here as boys so you may leave as men" as its motto, as the continued instruction of Latin is seen as a highly valuable component of a liberal arts education.

Latin is taught at many high schools, especially in Europe and the Americas. It is most common in British public schools and grammar schools , the Italian liceo classico and liceo scientifico , the German Humanistisches Gymnasium and the Dutch gymnasium.

Some films of ancient settings, such as Sebastiane and The Passion of the Christ , have been made with dialogue in Latin for the sake of realism.

Subtitles are usually shown for the benefit of those who do not understand Latin. There are also songs written with Latin lyrics.

The libretto for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex by Igor Stravinsky is in Latin. Occasionally, some media outlets, targeting enthusiasts, broadcast in Latin.

There are many websites and forums maintained in Latin by enthusiasts. The Latin Wikipedia has more than , articles written in Latin. Some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum CIL.

Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same: The reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy.

About , inscriptions are known. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in substantial works or in fragments to be analyzed in philology.

They are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. Their works were published in manuscript form before the invention of printing and are now published in carefully annotated printed editions, such as the Loeb Classical Library , published by Harvard University Press , or the Oxford Classical Texts , published by Oxford University Press.

The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. In the Middle Ages , borrowing from Latin occurred from ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the 6th century or indirectly after the Norman Conquest , through the Anglo-Norman language.

From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed " inkhorn terms ", as if they had spilled from a pot of ink.

Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. The influence of Roman governance and Roman technology on the less-developed nations under Roman dominion led to the adoption of Latin phraseology in some specialized areas, such as science, technology, medicine, and law.

For example, the Linnaean system of plant and animal classification was heavily influenced by Historia Naturalis , an encyclopedia of people, places, plants, animals, and things published by Pliny the Elder.

Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole. Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of Latin legal terms.

A few international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin. Interlingua is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language.

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin comparing phonology , inflection , discourse , syntax , vocabulary , and intonation indicated the following percentages the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin: Throughout European history, an education in the classics was considered crucial for those who wished to join literate circles.

Instruction in Latin is an essential aspect. This book, first published in , [29] was written by Frederic M. Wheelock , who received a PhD from Harvard University.

The Living Latin movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that living languages are taught, as a means of both spoken and written communication.

In the United Kingdom , the Classical Association encourages the study of antiquity through various means, such as publications and grants. In the United States and in Canada , the American Classical League supports every effort to further the study of classics.

Its subsidiaries include the National Junior Classical League with more than 50, members , which encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League , which encourages students to continue their study of the classics into college.

The league also sponsors the National Latin Exam. Classicist Mary Beard wrote in The Times Literary Supplement in that the reason for learning Latin is because of what was written in it.

The ancient pronunciation of Latin has been reconstructed; among the data used for reconstruction are explicit statements about pronunciation by ancient authors, misspellings, puns, ancient etymologies, the spelling of Latin loanwords in other languages, and the historical development of Romance languages.

The consonant phonemes of Classical Latin are as follows: Most of the letterforms were similar to modern uppercase, as can be seen in the inscription from the Colosseum shown at the top of the article.

In Classical Latin, as in modern Italian, double consonant letters were pronounced as long consonant sounds distinct from short versions of the same consonants.

In English, distinctive consonant length or doubling occurs only at the boundary between two words or morphemes , as in that example.

Classical Latin distinguished between long and short vowels. Long vowels in Classical Latin were pronounced with a different quality from short vowels and also were longer.

The difference is described in table below:. Classical Latin had several diphthongs. The sequences sometimes did not represent diphthongs.

Old Latin had more diphthongs, but most of them changed into long vowels in Classical Latin. These two developments sometimes occurred in different words from the same root: A similar pronunciation also existed during the Classical Latin period for less-educated speakers.

Latin was written in the Latin alphabet, derived from the Old Italic script , which was in turn drawn from the Greek alphabet and ultimately the Phoenician alphabet.

The number of letters in the Latin alphabet has varied. When it was first derived from the Etruscan alphabet, it contained only 21 letters.

W was created in the 11th century from VV. J was distinguished from the original I only during the late Middle Ages, as was the letter U from V.

Classical Latin did not contain sentence punctuation , letter case, [49] or interword spacing , but apices were sometimes used to distinguish length in vowels and the interpunct was used at times to separate words.

The first line of Catullus 3, originally written as. Most notable is the fact that while most of the Vindolanda tablets show spaces between words, spaces were avoided in monumental inscriptions from that era.

Latin is a synthetic , fusional language in the terminology of linguistic typology. In more traditional terminology, it is an inflected language, but typologists are apt to say "inflecting".

Words include an objective semantic element and markers specifying the grammatical use of the word. The fusion of root meaning and markers produces very compact sentence elements: The grammatical function can be changed by changing the markers: Inflection uses affixing and infixing.

Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed. There is an inherent ambiguity: A major task in understanding Latin phrases and clauses is to clarify such ambiguities by an analysis of context.

All natural languages contain ambiguities of one sort or another. The inflections express gender , number , and case in adjectives , nouns , and pronouns , a process called declension.

Markers are also attached to fixed stems of verbs, to denote person , number, tense , voice , mood , and aspect , a process called conjugation.

Some words are uninflected and undergo neither process, such as adverbs, prepositions, and interjections. A regular Latin noun belongs to one of five main declensions, a group of nouns with similar inflected forms.

The declensions are identified by the genitive singular form of the noun. The first declension, with a predominant ending letter of a , is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ae.

The second declension, with a predominant ending letter of o , is signified by the genitive singular ending of -i.

The third declension, with a predominant ending letter of i , is signified by the genitive singular ending of -is. The fifth declension, with a predominant ending letter of e , is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ei.

Thus, word order is not as important in Latin as it is in English, which is less inflected. The general structure and word order of a Latin sentence can therefore vary.

The cases are as follows:. Latin lacks both definite and indefinite articles so puer currit can mean either "the boy is running" or "a boy is running".

Also, the sentence coquus in culina laborat could mean "the cook works in the kitchen" or "the cook is working in the kitchen.

There are two types of regular Latin adjectives: They are so-called because their forms are similar or identical to first- and second-declension and third-declension nouns, respectively.

Latin adjectives also have comparative more --, -er and superlative most --, est forms. There are also a number of Latin participles.

First and second-declension adjectives are declined like first-declension nouns for the feminine forms and like second-declension nouns for the masculine and neuter forms.

For example, for mortuus, mortua, mortuum dead , mortua is declined like a regular first-declension noun such as puella girl , mortuus is declined like a regular second-declension masculine noun such as dominus lord, master , and mortuum is declined like a regular second-declension neuter noun such as auxilium help.

Some first and second declension adjectives have an -er as the masculine nominative singular form and are declined like regular first- and second-declension adjectives.

Some but not all adjectives keep the e for all of the forms. Third-declension adjectives are mostly declined like normal third-declension nouns, with a few exceptions.

In the plural nominative neuter, for example, the ending is -ia omnia all, everything , and for third-declension nouns, the plural nominative neuter ending is -a or -ia capita heads , animalia animals They can have one, two or three forms for the masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative singular.

Latin participles, like English participles, are formed from a verb. There are a few main types of participles: Latin sometimes uses prepositions, depending on the type of prepositional phrase being used.

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It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout.

Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose injected humour and the like.

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over years old.

Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source.

Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..

The standard chunk of Lorem Ipsum used since the s is reproduced below for those interested. All the Lorem Ipsum generators on the Internet tend to repeat predefined chunks as necessary, making this the first true generator on the Internet.

It uses a dictionary of over Latin words, combined with a handful of model sentence structures, to generate Lorem Ipsum which looks reasonable.

The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore always free from repetition, injected humour, or non-characteristic words etc. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

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No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful.

Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure.

To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it?

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Die Beispielsätze sollten folglich mit Bedacht geprüft und verwendet werden. Im Rahmen der Kontaktaufnahme mit uns z. Wir freuen uns über Ihre Nachricht! Dieser Hinweis ist Teil unserer Datenschutzerklärung. Wiederaufnahme des Gedankens nach einer Abschweifung, Unterbrechung u. Dazu kommen jetzt Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungsbeispielen aus externen Quellen, die zeigen, wie ein Begriff im Zusammenhang übersetzt wird. Name und E-Mail-Adresse erhoben, falls Sie diese eingeben. Senden Sie uns Feedback! Abydenus Abydos Abydum Abydus abyssus.

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